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Soft 3D-Printed Phantom of the Human Kidney with Collecting System

2017

Article

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Organ models are used for planning and simulation of operations, developing new surgical instruments, and training purposes. There is a substantial demand for in vitro organ phantoms, especially in urological surgery. Animal models and existing simulator systems poorly mimic the detailed morphology and the physical properties of human organs. In this paper, we report a novel fabrication process to make a human kidney phantom with realistic anatomical structures and physical properties. The detailed anatomical structure was directly acquired from high resolution CT data sets of human cadaveric kidneys. The soft phantoms were constructed using a novel technique that combines 3D wax printing and polymer molding. Anatomical details and material properties of the phantoms were validated in detail by CT scan, ultrasound, and endoscopy. CT reconstruction, ultrasound examination, and endoscopy showed that the designed phantom mimics a real kidney's detailed anatomy and correctly corresponds to the targeted human cadaver's upper urinary tract. Soft materials with a tensile modulus of 0.8-1.5 MPa as well as biocompatible hydrogels were used to mimic human kidney tissues. We developed a method of constructing 3D organ models from medical imaging data using a 3D wax printing and molding process. This method is cost-effective means for obtaining a reproducible and robust model suitable for surgical simulation and training purposes.

Author(s): Adams, Fabian and Qiu, Tian and Mark, Andrew and Fritz, Benjamin and Kramer, Lena and Schlager, Daniel and Wetterauer, Ulrich and Miernik, Arkadiusz and Fischer, Peer
Journal: Ann. of Biomed. Eng.
Volume: 45
Number (issue): 4
Pages: 963-972
Year: 2017
Month: April

Department(s): Micro, Nano, and Molecular Systems
Research Project(s): New wireless ultrasonic actuator and its application in miniaturized endoscopy
Bibtex Type: Article (article)

DOI: 10.1007/s10439-016-1757-5
State: Published

BibTex

@article{2017adams,
  title = {Soft 3D-Printed Phantom of the Human Kidney with Collecting System},
  author = {Adams, Fabian and Qiu, Tian and Mark, Andrew and Fritz, Benjamin and Kramer, Lena and Schlager, Daniel and Wetterauer, Ulrich and Miernik, Arkadiusz and Fischer, Peer},
  journal = {Ann. of Biomed. Eng.},
  volume = {45},
  number = {4},
  pages = {963-972},
  month = apr,
  year = {2017},
  month_numeric = {4}
}